Aristotles model of communication entails five key elements, which are the speaker, the audience, speech, occasion and effect. The speaker is centered in this communication model. Therefore, the speaker has the most primal role in this communication channel. The speaker delivers a speech to the audience. The role of the audience is passive because they do not engage in communication. They listen to the speaker giving the speech, and the essence of the speech is to influence the audience (Shanahan, & Seele, 2015). Thus, this communication is a one-way communication channel from the speaker to the audience.
Aristotle explained that the speaker should plan the speech effectively to influence the target audience. Public speaking skills are necessary to enable the speaker develop persuasive skills. Persuasive skills entail ethos, logos, and pathos. Ethos is ability of the speaker to show good character. This enables the speaker to persuade the crowd because they believe in the leader. Consequently, pathos is the ability of the speaker to connect with the audience emotionally. For instance, the speaker can talk about issues that affect the society deeply giving effective ways of improving these issues in the best interests of the society. Logos means that the speaker should apply logic in his speech (Shanahan, & Seele, 2015). This enables the speaker to influence the audience.
Newer Communication Theories Related to the Aristotles Model
Aristotles communication model is the oldest communication theory in history. Aristotles theory has been developed by other theorists over time. The linear communication model is one of the theories developed on Aristotles communication theory. This theory is a simple one-way communication channel where the message flows from the sender to the receiver. There is no feedback in this theory. The receiver only decodes the message sent. Shannon Weavers communication theory is one of the most relevant linear communication theories developed under Aristotles communication theory. Shannons theory differs from Aristotles theory because it focuses on both the sender and the receiver. Aristotles theory focused majorly on the speaker (Heath, & Bryant, 2013).
Transactional model of communication is also developed from Aristotles communication theory. In this theory, the sender and the receiver are equally important. Therefore, there is need for feedback to show whether the receiver understood the message. Non-verbal feedback such as body language and gestures are important in this model because they show the speaker is effective to the audience. An example of the transactional model is the Beckers Mosaic model.
Barriers to communication
There are various barriers to effective communication that may occur in different scenarios. Noise is a major distraction during communication. Noise hinders the audience from listening to the speaker. The speaker should always maintain the audience and ensure there is no distraction caused by noise. Moreover, lack of enthusiasm is another major communication barrier. If the speaker lacks enthusiasm in his or her speech, the audience will not be convinced by the speech. Therefore, it is important for the speaker to use non-verbal tools such as facial expression to achieve enthusiasm in speech. Further, the speaker should maintain eye connection with the audience to create effective communication. Lack of eye connection between the speaker and the audience is a barrier to effective communication because the audience can easily be distracted from the speaker.
Environmental barriers may affect the effectiveness of communication. Noisy environments or poorly ventilated environments may distract the audience from the speaker. Therefore, the speaker should ensure communication takes place in a peaceful environment. Moreover, cultural differences may present communication barriers. The speaker should learn how to relate with people from different cultures to engage them in effective communication.
Co-Relation between Leaders, Stakeholder groups and Organizational Politics
Politics enables leaders to influence change in the community. Consequently, in democratic societies people have the right to engage in decision-making. Therefore, it is essential for the leader to engage the society in decision making. Nonetheless, stakeholder groups are important in decision making and creation of various policies. This is because stakeholder groups are also affected by a states political decisions. Therefore, the relation between leaders, stakeholder groups, and the society presents a unique communication channel.
The leader is the sender of the information and the target audience determines the type of communication medium that should be used. There are various types of mediums in politics such as magazines, emails, public meetings, internet and videos. Stakeholder groups and the public are essential in receiving and encoding the message. Further, stakeholder groups and the public give their feedback to the leader. This offers a transactional model of communication, where both the sender and the receiver engage in the communication process (DeFleur & DeFleur, 2016). There is a mutual relationship between stakeholder groups and leaders in organizational politics. Thus, a transactional communication model is necessary to create a good relationship between the leader and stakeholder groups. The leader can engage in indirect communication models or direct communication models with the public and relevant stakeholders groups.
Communication is necessary because it helps the society to exchange ideas and create good relationships. Moreover, communication channels should be well structured to create effective communication between the sender and the receiver. For instance, the message channel should be fast enough to provide timely response by the receiver.
DeFleur, M. L., & DeFleur, M, H. (2016). Mass communication theories: Explaining origins, processes, and effects. Routledge.
Heath, R. L., & Bryant, J. (2013). Human communication theory and research: Concepts, contexts, and challenges. Routledge.
Shanahan, F., & Seele, P. (2015). Shorting Ethos: exploring the relationship between Aristotles Ethos and Reputation Management. Corporate Reputation Review, 18(1), 37-49.
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