ADHD and Delinquency

Published: 2019-09-06 07:00:00
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ADHD is a behavioral health problem that is very common among children. The mentioned condition requires both medical interventions and parent understanding of the condition to ensure children not only behavioral health but also enable live healthy lives. Some facts have been established concerning this behavior as well as theories about the ADHD behavior, as will be discussed in this paper.

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Facts about delinquency rates among those with ADHD

ADHD leads to making of rushed decisions, which leads to impulsive decisions as well as major troubles experienced in the keeping of a track of time as well as organizing of priorities. It pushes individuals to behaviors that are perilous and sensational seeking, more so when caution is the best choice. Many ADHD individuals exhibit these behaviors for a long time during their lifetime (Denevi 21)

Children that exhibit behavior patterns of ADHD are exposed to some difficulties such as struggle in keeping up with academics and adjusting to environments where there is intensive human interaction with other kids in the neighborhoods. Also, the rates of these children experiencing behavioral disorders later in life are higher than other children. The tendencies of causing car accidents, abuse of substances and divorces are a common feature in children with ADHD. Moreover, the children in question have a higher propensity to hyperactivity, impulsivity as well as a lack of the ability to concentrate that becomes very evident in both home and school settings. Usually, these behavior malfunctions persist later in their lives thus compounding the adjustment interventions that are meant to remedy the situation (Chandler and Chris 54). These behaviors are very problematic first when the children are exposed to demands and expectations of school that require them to concentrate, and also the anticipation of being disciplined and conforming to regularities. The situation of these kids is aggravated by the regimented condition in schools; most schools are too rigid to accommodate varied needs of different children (Denevi 43).

ADHD children have a failure of inhibiting their feelings as compared to the others that are of the same age. Failure makes many individuals pass judgment on ADHD children as emotionally immature. Pushing such children to maturity is a very arduous task as it cannot be done by only telling them to inhibit their reactions since there is an inherent problem in their brain centers which is responsible for such inhibition. Also, Children with ADHD have a difficulty in getting adapted to situations that require them to remain calm. They may be very passionate and emotional in some of the actions they make, and this will make them do what they can do with a personal conviction as compared to the rest of the children (Denevi 58)

Children with ADHD are so emotional as compared to the other kids. These kids do not inhibit their first reactions to different situations, and they do not have time for separating the feelings they have towards something from existing facts. In most cases, they live regretting some of their actions which are so impulsive and emotional that they drive the other children away. This behavior gives teachers as well as coaches a difficult time in handling children with ADHD as compared to those without. Such challenges may bring conflicts both in the areas of residence and also at school settings (Berge, Itai, and Maeir 84).

ADHD, in most cases, is seen as a behavior that is contested. This implies that it is not an actual disorder, thus serving the interests of the various schools in their needs for maintaining order as well as the industry of pharmaceuticals which seeks to sell drugs as possible as well as professions building their practices around the treatment of these children. This presents a story that is distorted and often trivializing the pain, the disruptions made, and also the behavioral syndrome that is brought about by this condition, giving an underestimation of both social and personal costs for such children, families, their schools as well as the communities (Barkley 38).

Theoretical Models Accounting for the above Patterns

Several theories account for these changes emotional organization response. First, there is response inhibition theory. In this theory, the core deficit of ADHD lives in an impaired inhibition of outputs that are not needed such as the inhibition of responses that are prepotent. Withholding patterns of the ongoing responses that are already established which may grant permission for a delay in decisions made as well as giving protection to this period of delay from being interfered with events that are very extraneous. These may, in turn, lead to various secondary impairments in functions that are essential and may be involved in self-control (Barkley, 84).

There is also the state regulation theory. It gives more focus on factors that are very contextual. The poor performance of children with ADHD on some of the tasks is believed to be a reflection on a state of energetic pools that is very non-optimal. By having an introduction of a reward or even a faster event rate, states of these ADHD children can be optimized so that their performance can be raised to a level that is controlled. The theory also offers an explanation for the variability as well as the inconsistency in response to the ADHD subjects that is observed in such children. It further states that the degree of these variations is also altered under different situations of the experiment of stimuli presentations (Chandler and Chris 71).

There is also the delay aversion theory which proposes that behaviors that are not controlled do not necessarily originate from the inability of withholding responses, but from changes that are very motivational. This is a deep rooted dislike for having to wait which is, therefore, reluctance to delays. The influence brought about by this context is even stronger in its formulation because if the characteristics responsible for delay are controlled, then it will be possible to have a set-up of experiment arrangement where ADHD children will not be expected to demonstrate impulsively (Denevi 57).

The psychological theory of ADHD also offers an explanation about ADHD. Data that is derived studies of neuropsychological have been used in the intensive conceptualization of ADHD as a disorder that can be easily explained by deficits of cognitive aspects of children. Specifically, behaviors that are attributed to the frontal lobes are implicated. Hence, neuro-anatomical links in an individuals brain are vital to the understanding of ADHD. Behaviors that emanate from the frontal lobes are in general known to be functions of the executive, and also regarding evolution, the frontal lobes have been developed as part of the brain. Executive functions are in general a collection cognitive processes that are of a high level and play the role of controlling and also regulating other processes in the lower levels (Denevi 59). The need for Executive Functions (EF) is that it is the manager of many functions that may altogether lead to a production of a product. Children are not born with a set of full formed functions of the executive, but they develop them throughout their childhood stage and may decline this at an older stage. Developments associated with EF in childhood as well as adolescents in correlation with changes of the neural with the frontal lobe. The neural developments in the different stages have a significant impact on the behaviors as well as cognition. As changes occur in the brains, some problems abate (Cohen-Posey and Kate 49). Use of neuropsychological accounts of the ADHD has also been put forward as a possible endophenotype. The inability to have an inhibition of the prepotent responses have an implication that the individual will not be capable of assessing the tasks and demands as well as the possible outcomes of responses made (Cohen-posey and Kate 48-50)

In summary, ADHD may force an individual to make hasty decisions without having a consideration of its impacts. Children with ADHD are exposed to many problems in both the society as well as the environments of the school. These kids exhibit a lot of emotional disorders in their interactions and actions. Many theoretical models accounting for this patterns have been established which include the response inhibition theory, state regulation theory, delay aversion theory as well as the psychological theories of ADHD.

Works Cited

Barkley, Russell A. Taking Charge of Adhd: The Complete, Authoritative Guide for Parents (revised Edition). New York: Guilford Publications, 2000. Print.

Berger, Itai, and Adina Maeir. Adhd: A Transparent Impairment, Clinical, Daily-Life and Research Aspects in Diverse Populations. N.p., 2014. Print.

Chandler, Chris. The Science of Adhd: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.

Cohen-Posey, Kate. More Brief Therapy Client Handouts. Hoboken: J. Wiley, 2011. Print.

Denevi, Timothy. Hyper: A Personal History of Adhd. N.p., 2014. Print.

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