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The urban population in Fiji especially around Suva which is the capital city of the country has increased over the recent years. As a result, more infrastructures are built to meet the everyday demands such as access to safe water and sewerage systems (Project, 2018). Enhancing water supply and wastewater management remains a key priority to Fiji's development agenda. The reason for this is because various factors such as weather extremities and the rise of sea level among others affect the environment. Furthermore, they pose a major threat to urban infrastructures.
The islands in Fiji vary in sizes which in turn affect the way water resources exist amongst them. The large islands usually have permanent water sources such as rivers due to their mountainous regions in comparison to the small islands. In the past years, the agriculture and irrigation sector have experienced problems as a result of lack of coordination between different mechanisms that were applied regarding water use. Recently, various measurements have been taken to improve such conditions. WANI-2 in Kandavu and Rewa River water supply subproject are among the projects proposed to increase the water production as well as facilitate the wastewater treatment (Assessment, 2018; Water resources, 2018). The aim of these projects is to create a positive impact on the climate and improve the health, social and economic growth in general.
Figure 1: Location Map
Figure 2: Suva Region
Figure 3: Location and Route of the Rewa Water Supply Subproject in Suva
Water quantity and quality are among the factors that are affected as a result of climate change. Due to climate change, various factors have made an impact towards the building and construction of water sector infrastructure. Factors such as global warming have widely contributed to the rise of temperatures leading to extreme weather conditions such as drought and flooding (IPCC, 2018). In turn, this has caused the sea level to rise due to the melting of glaciers and ice sheets. Also, climate change has also led to decrease in precipitation. The agriculture sector has encountered many challenges because of reduced rainfall which includes disrupting food availability, reduced quality of food as well as access to food. Improvisation of the urban water system is necessary to meet the demands related to population growth and the requirements of the industry.
The climate of Fiji is composed of two distinctive seasons throughout the year, warm wet season from November and April and also a cooler dry season from May to October. Fiji often experiences a highly variable rainfall which is influenced by mountain peaks up with an average of up to 1800 annually. However, sometimes the temperature can reach as high as 32 degrees, especially during the summer. The region often is prone to El Nino and tropical cyclones. Different methods of adaptation for water resources have been put in place and widely considered as efficient. These adaptations include flood-control measures such as the building of reservoirs, development of irrigation systems for sustainable agriculture. Finally, assessment of drought-alleviation measures to facilitate the management of water resources which include alternative water resources such as groundwater and the use of roof catchments.
Assessment, E. (2018). Rewa River Water Supply Subproject. Adb.org. Retrieved 8 February 2018, from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/linked-documents/49001-002-ieeab.pdf
Fijian communities discuss future water resources. (2018). IUCN. Retrieved 8 February 2018, from https://www.iucn.org/content/fijian-communities-discuss-future-water-resources
IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2018). Ipcc.ch. Retrieved 8 February 2018, from https://www.ipcc.ch/
The project, 2. (2018). FP008 Fiji Urban Water Supply and Wastewater Management Project - Project. Green Climate Fund. Retrieved 8 February 2018, from http://www.greenclimate.fund/-/fiji-urban-water-supply-and-wastewater-management-project
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