Teaching Plan and Presentation for Acquired Pneumonia
Although nurses are expected to restore good health in sick patients, they also strive to promote better health in healthy individuals. Patients understand the kinds of behavior that affect their health through education from health practitioners and through seeking knowledge from the widely available information on the internet. The internet has allowed many adults to obtain information regarding diet, physical exercise, or fitness to promote maximum health. Since the past two decades, the number of adults reporting that they have searched for information regarding their physical fitness and overall diet in the internet has increased significantly (Weaver, Mays, Hopkins, Eroglu, & Bernhardt, 2010). As a healthcare provided, it is therefore necessary to educate and evaluate patients learning needs and identify areas that may need further teaching, especially among adults because they are less likely to use the internet to obtain information on their own.
Patients Background Information
A 68-year old Venezuelan man, currently living with his wife in Birmingham was admitted with a primary diagnosis of acquired pneumonia. The man had two grown up children who also had their own families. He was a high school graduate and took part in social works before this illness. According to his medical history, the man had suffered from hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, and emphysema. The basic diagnosis for this patient is altered respiratory system implicated by breathing difficulties upon exertion. The client needs teaching because shortness of breath is a major concern for adults seeking to continue performing their daily activities. The major challenge with this client is the difficulty in having a smooth conversation because he needs to stop to catch his breath. Even while at rest, he needs three liters of oxygen via the nasal cannula. All these problems have led to inadequate nutrition because his dependent on oxygen has affected his ability to eat. This breathing difficulty has not only weakened the mans muscles but has also increased his anxiety because he cannot breathe. As such, the client tends to remain in bed. However, it is necessary to educate the man on the importance of remaining active to prevent extreme conditions of shortness of breath.
Patient Learner Assessment: given the clients age and anxiety regarding his breathing difficulties, the healthcare provider will:
- Assess the clients emotional preparedness
- Frequently remind the client to stay calm and take slow deep breaths
- Stick to age-specific learning techniques that fit his cognitive ability
- Provide written materials together with visual demonstrations so that he can refer to later
Long-Term Goals: The client will become independent and be able to carry out his daily activities
Intermediate Goals: The client will be able to control gas exchange in order to hold smooth conversations
Short-Term Goals: The client will be able to practice slow deep breaths and effectively use inhaler medications
Since the client had difficulties moving in bed and holding conversations without stopping to catch his breath, the client needed to be assisted to:
a. Get cleaned and take breakfast
b. Take inhaler medications
c. practice slow deep breaths
d. practice various physical activities to stay active
At the end of the teaching session, the client will:
1. Describe how to control and prevent shortness of breath
2. Be able to continue performing his daily activities
3. Be able to practice slow deep breaths
4. Use inhalers effectively
5. Become independent through practice and effective learning
Signs and symptoms include fever, frequent coughs, heavy breaths, and short of breath.
Extreme conditions may include coughing up mucus or even vomiting (Anne, 2010).
Diagnosis for acquired pneumonia depends on the patients past health history, cause of the infection, and clients age.
Prescription of a drug to break the mucus lining in the lungs.
Demonstration on the use of inhalers
3. Follow Up
The client is advised to report after 3 days in case the coughs persist. Otherwise, the patient is expected to visit the healthcare provider after 3 weeks to determine whether a chest X-ray may be necessary.
4. Prevention Measures
Since pneumonia can be caused by a virus, bacteria or fungus, the client is advised to get a pneumonia vaccine given his age.
i. Demonstrating on the need to have adequate rest and providing visual demonstrations containing the appropriate resting positions
2. Demonstrate how to take slow deep breaths
3. Demonstrate how frequent coughing can help break the mucus lining in the lungs
4. Provide written materials explaining the safety measures that should be taken in order to reduce the spread (e.g. the patient should use disinfectants to wash the hands after vising bathroom or blowing the nose)
5. Describe how to sneeze into a handkerchief or tissue
6. Provide written materials describing the amount of water that should be taken per day since liquid helps loosen up the mucus lining in the lungs
7. Demonstrate various physical exercises the patient can engage in to stay active
8. Providing written materials containing follow-up treatment plans.
Evaluation of Outcomes: The patient will:
I. Demonstrate the correct and proper use of inhalers.
II. Practice breathing through pressed lips when ambulating.
III. Demonstrate correct use medication orders for emphysema.
IV. Demonstrate a correct understanding of the provided materials and visual aids.
Conclusion and Summary
Patients are often hopeful that they can again become independent. However, Weaver, Mays, Hopkins, Eroglu, & Bernhardt (2010) explain that this situation may be difficult especially when the patient is suffering from chronic disease such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Due to these complexities, it was important to assess his health status and create goals that the patient could achieve through practice according to his cognitive capabilities. As a healthcare practitioner, it is important to acknowledge that although nurses may address similar interventions, the learning process cannot always be the same. Abley (1997) noted that teaching methods are usually patient-specific, and elderly patients may require more demonstrative approaches to achieve the long-term goals. As such, identifying the patients strengths and weaknesses is the key to having a successful teaching session.
Abley, C. (1997). Teaching Elderly Patients how to Use Inhalers - A Study to Evaluate an Education Programme on Inhaler Technique for Elderly Patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing 25(4), 699-708.
Anne, W. (2010). Patient Education: Pneumonia. Retrieved April 2017, from Nursing Centre: http://www.nursingcenter.com/journalarticle?Article_ID=1068960
Weaver, J., Mays, D., Hopkins, G., Eroglu, D., & Bernhardt, J. (2010). Health Information - Seeking Behaviors, Health Indicators, and Health Risks. American Journal of Public Health 100(8), 1520-1525.
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