|Type of paper:||Course work|
|Categories:||Nursing Profession Professional development|
Part A: Nursing Theory
The nursing theory that has influenced my values and goals is Nightingale's Environmental theory. This theory has managed to uplift nursing into a recognizable and legitimate profession in continuous growth. Florence Nightingale's theory advocated for the utilization of a patient's environment to help in the recovery process. As such, the theory puts more emphasis on environmental standards, including ventilation, nutrition, light, bedding, variety, cleanliness, noise, and chattering hopes (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2017). The theory entailed setting a patient's environment to the best condition through the provision of essential and basic needs.
Nightingale provides a set of principles on how to complete her environmental care standards. Adherence to the standards under this theory is definitely excellent nursing practice. Fulfilling one of the environmental standards can also complement another. For instance, by caring for light, ventilation and variety are adjusted too. According to Nightingale (1859), ventilation and warming entail keeping a patient's air as pure as the external air without chilling. Ventilation is necessary to keep off toxic elements from a patient's lungs and skin. Second to proper ventilation or fresh air is light. Patients need direct sunlight as it stimulates natural circadian rhythm. Proper lighting includes leaving blinds open during the day and switching off night lights and TV. The third standard is noise, stressing that patients should never be woken up either intentionally or accidentally as soon as they fall asleep. Nurses should prevent unnecessary noise accruing from sudden noise and loud chatters.
As for variety, nurses should initiate changes in color as well as the form for the patients. Variety involves incorporating beautiful arrangements with color and light, as well as providing patients with non-strenuous activities. Nutrition is the fourth standard, and it advocates for proper diet to the patients. Naturally, people desire different foods at different times of the day; however, small servings are more beneficial to the patient. Nightingale (1859) noted that nurses should avoid giving patients "gruel, arrowroot puddings, and egg flip." The standard on chattering hopes and advice explains to the attempts by friends and family to cheer up the patient. Nightingale (1859) discourages the false cheering of the sick by making light of their illness. Nurses are expected to tell the truth and set clear the patient's expectations. Lastly, the standard of cleanliness covers most of Nightingale's notes; changing beddings daily, cleaning rooms, self-hygiene among nurses - wash hands frequently during the day, bathing the patient, and fresh clothes are elaborated.
I share the same morals and values as provided in Nightingale's standards surrounding environmental activities in delivering quality health care to patients. As a nurse who has worked in numerous hospitals, since high school, I understand how important it is to create a therapeutic environment for the sick. During presentations for nursing programs at each facility that I have previously worked, I find myself outlining most of Nightingale's theory. This information is essential to my co-workers as well as individuals taking care of others, regardless of their education, and this theory can be fully applied to nursing practice.
Part B: Contributions of 19th and 20th-Century Historical Nursing Figures
Madeleine Leininger and Jean Watson were both historical figures that had a significant impact in the field of nursing. Leininger developed the theory of culture care diversity and universality in 1977 (Leininger, 1988). Leininger's transcultural nursing theory, also known as culture care theory, serves to develop an understanding of the various cultures for nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs, and values; the goal being to provide meaningful and efficacious nursing care services to people according to their cultural values and health-illness context (Leininger, 1988). On the other hand, Watson philosophized the science of caring and humanistic nursing in 1978. She developed a list of ten core factors of nursing, which addressed the effects of sensitivity, interpersonal skills, altruism, and trust (Watson, 1999).
The difference between the two contributions is evident because Leininger observed how necessary cultural knowledge is to the nursing profession. She explains the importance of nurse-patient collaboration in creating a care plan that suits the lifestyle and well-being of the patient. Her transcultural theory focuses on how global health and cultures relate to the nursing profession (Leininger, 1988). On the other hand, Watson's transpersonal theory focuses on the interpersonal relations existing between the nurse and the patient. Her theory encourages caring and healing of the patient alongside caring for the disease and illness (Watson, 1999).
Both of these nursing historical figures have influenced me into exercising hard work in caring for individuals no matter the situation. These women have also instilled in me the virtue of being culturally diverse when providing health care to individuals alongside mastering the art of communication between my patients with an aim to create a suitable care of plan for the patients and me.
Part C: State Board of Nursing versus American Nurses Association (ANA)
The State Board of Nursing is a government-appointed board responsible for the monitoring of nursing practices in the states (National Council of State Boards of Nursing. 2019). This body focuses on protecting the general public from malpractice that may arise from unmonitored nurses. They are also in charge of suspending licenses belonging to incompetent nurses. Also, the body determines the programs to be accredited in the education system of state institutions. On the other hand, the American Nurses Association is an organization that represents all registered nurses in the U.S. The ANA promotes and fights for the rights of the nurses. The association also advocates for better healthcare management between the public and the nurses (ANA). Besides, it provides CE credits and obtains federal funding for advancing nurse education and training (ANA).
The two organizations greatly influence my nursing practice; one of the key factors to consider before registering for a nursing program in any school is whether the State Board of Nursing has accredited the institution's courses. I have also been careful to choose to work in facilities that abide by the board's requirements on safe healthcare to avoid license suspension. On the other hand, I find it assuring to become a member of the ANA because it is supportive of the nurses; it fights for their rights as well as the rights of the patients.
As a working nurse in South Carolina, I have to renew my license every two years. Continued Education credits are mandatory for the renewal of the license. The renewal process can be completed online, and feedback is acquired within two business days (South Carolina Board of Nursing). Also, those who do it by mail (through the printed papers) gets the job done in two weeks. The renewal process requires a payment fee of $75 and 30 CE hours alongside the license number and the last four digits of the social security number (South Carolina Board of Nursing). Nurses re allowed to practice for up to one month from the license expiration date while renewal is ongoing. Failure to maintain license requirements puts the nurse at risk for disciplinary measures from the South Carolina Board of Nurses (Law, 2006). The license is suspended for lack of renewal, and the nurse is banned from practicing medicine at all.
Compact licenses are issued to nurses in the compact states. This license allows the nurse to practice nursing in any of the other compact states. However, the nurse is also subject to disciplinary within those states. The nurse does not require an application for a license to work in other compact states so long as the license is active. A single compact license is required at a given time. As for the non-compact states, nurses can only practice in that state, and this license is single-state; it is non-functional in other states.
Part D: Functional Differences among Agencies
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) are both parts of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA regulates the sale as well as the production of food, tobacco, pharmaceutical drugs, and medical equipment (FDAa, 2019). The CMS regulates the reimbursement of medical care and products (CMSa, 2018). Together, the FDA approves medical products (FDAb, 2018) and services while the CMS provides funding for those who are eligible. Both departments play a significant role in nursing care. We must use safe products that are approved by the FDA. Besides, as the patients' advocates, we work with CMS to ensure patients get their desired services. In case a patient opts for alternative therapy, it is our job to provide all the relevant information and teaching we can and support the decisions they make.
Part E: Purposes of the Nurse Practice Act
The South Carolina Practice Act provides a minimum requirement for safe practice as a nurse. Nurses who violate the requirements are considered potential threats to the general public. The Act stipulates the scope of practice for LPNs, RNs, and ARNPs. Also, the act dictates the scope of practice for RNs regarding observation, assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation of patient's healthcare (South Carolina Board of Nursing). All these are done alongside the administration of medicine and treatment prescribed by a licensed practitioner. As summarized in the Nursing Practice Act, "the RN is responsible for providing safe, compassionate, and comprehensive nursing care to patients and their families with complex healthcare needs" (Russell, 2012). Delegation is also part of the scope of a RN, and it bears great responsibility. The nurses are expected to delegate the right tasks to the right patients.
Part F: Application of Nursing Roles
The nursing practice encompasses three roles, namely, a scientist, a detective, and a manager of the healing environment. As a nurse, the scientist role is applied in the participation in scientific studies, collection, analysis of data, and reporting of findings or results. The field of nursing is ever-growing because of the discovery of new research and advanced methods. Therefore, the nursing profession requires research skills that are borrowed from a scientist. The detective role comes into play when the nurse needs to assess and evaluate a patient's condition to capture potential problems and hence provide the best care possible. Lastly, the nurse is the manager of the healing environment, and I can apply this by upholding Nightingale's values concerning the nursing profession. I ensure that my patients get a therapeutic environment since the surrounding matters in the healing process of a patient. As such, I am always concerned about the diet, light, noise, ventilation, and cleanliness, among others, which form the set standards as outlined in Nightingale's notes.
Part G: Provisions from the ANA Code of Ethics
The ANA Code of Ethics contains nine provisions; the first and third provisions are outstanding in my nursing practice. The first provision advocates for good practice by upholding respect and compassion for all patients, thereby acknowledging the patients' worth, dignity, and attributes (Stanhope et al., 2017). The third provision state that the nurse promotes, advocates for, and protect the rights, health, and safety of the patients (Stanhope et al., 2017).
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