Research Paper Sample on Major Psychological Movements

Published: 2022-06-16
Research Paper Sample on Major Psychological Movements
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Psychology
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1666 words
14 min read

Psychoanalysis is the process whereby Sigmund Freud took the simple fact that a person could be cured through a transition of making his unconscious thoughts conscious, and thus they gain insight and motivation. The purpose of doing psychoanalysis is so that one can release any repressed experiences and emotions that are making conscious the unconscious feelings. Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that is primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. A right way of solving the situation is when physician sits behind a patient and takes notes. Behaviorism is a psychological approach whereby there are scientific and objective ways of investigation. The method touches on the observable stimulus-response behaviors, and it is concerned with all actions that are learned through environmental interaction. There are diverse types of behaviorism that are the Watson's original methodological behaviorism, differed to other forms of behaviorism that were primarily directed from his original works collectively regarded as neo-behaviorism. An advantage of behaviorism is that it gives a clear distinction between behaviors and thus gives a measure of response (Vakoch & Castrillon).

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Humanistic and existential psychotherapies employ a broad perspective of methods that conceptualize therapeutic goals and other ranges of intervention strategies. They are an understanding of the human experience focused on the client and not the symptom. Psychological problems are brought about by some of the abilities to make authentic, meaningful and self-directed perceptions regarding the manner in which to live. Therefore, any interventions made is directed to boost client self-awareness and self-understanding. Humanistic and existential methods have the belief that everyone has a capacity for self-awareness and choice. The significant terms that are comprised of humanistic therapy are two things acceptance and growth.

The rationale for why each movement is/was considered essential to understanding human behavior and experiences

Some things make the psychoanalysis great since it addresses the problem for which it was meant to resolve, also that it would go hand in hand with other future theories that might be developed and withstand a test of time. Freud developed the term "psychoanalysis" between the ages of 1856 which was a long way back then, but the word is still as fresh today and is used to cure mental illnesses. The term has mostly been accepted widely within institutions, organizations and conferences being the primary focus. Therefore, it is essential because it was innovative and revolutionary since it withstood the test of time. Psychoanalysis is by far among the greatest since it is very comprehensive.

Learning of behaviorism is met through an association of classical conditioning which mainly involves an association between development of environmental stimulus and that of the naturally occurring stimulus. There are a lot of factors that can influence a classical conditioning process such as the prominence and stimuli; therefore, a quick association is established. The theory works whether a person is being punished or being rewarded. An operant conditioning is a process in which occurs whether one is undergoing punishment or reinforcement. Reinforcement timetables are very important in a sense that one has to observe a particular behavior being performed then he/she then proceeds to give a reward or punishment. Some theorists mainly influenced the theories of psychology, and there are even prominent theorists they had a good line of the indelible mark in addition to the behavioral psychology (Gabbard, Litowitz, & Williams, 2012).

Humanistic psychology is essential since it concentrates on the role of an individual. The theory incorporates some of the critical environmental influences and takes them into account. Humanistic psychology does not solely give credit to one line of concentration that is the internal thoughts and desires of a person but also the environmental factors within. The theory in application assisted in getting rid of the stigma that was initially there when it came to therapy thus making it be accepted by even the healthy people thus exploring their abilities and potential (Unearthing the moment: Mindful applications for existential-humanistic and transpersonal psychotherapy, 2014).

Psychodynamic theory

It is a term that broadly describes personality in regards to the conscious and unconscious forces, for instance, s good example would be the unconscious desires and beliefs. Sigmund Freud brought up a psychodynamic theory whereby personality was to feature an identity which was to be allocated instincts and pleasure-seeking, on the other hand, the superego which was to be responsible for obeying rules of the society and lastly the ego responsible for mediates that exists between demands and reality. Psychodynamic theory broadly covers the childhood shape of personality (Gordon).

The critical theorists of the theory of Psychodynamic were composed of Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Alfred Adler. The primary tenets of the theory suggest that everyone is brought to this world with a sense of inferiority due to the simple fact that a baby has no energy and is helpless. According to Erik Erikson psychosocial development includes some challenges in the stages of life that one must overcome to become successful at later on stages of life. For instance, when a child is between the ages of years 0 to 1 he/she must learn to trust the people she/he is with, another one would be the ages between 1 to 3 the child must develop an autonomy which will assist them not to get ashamed or have doubts about their future. All these tenets established by the three theorists suggested that they have a common social interest directed towards psychodynamics thus it linked them as Neo-Freudians. However, Adler was among the foremost theorist to develop one of the initial comprehensive social theories which were a psychodynamic self (Dompere, 2004).

Behaviorism theoretical underpinnings

It is a systematic method of understanding a specific behavior attached to humans and animals. It is a form of reflex that has been produced which is produced as a response to combat the stimuli within an environment. Behaviorism contains very many tenets including but not limited to philosophy, methodology and psychological theory. Behaviorism came up as a result of the reaction to depth psychology and a combination of other forms of psychology. The philosophical position was strengthened by Skinners early experimental work where he worked with rats and pigeons. He brought up an essential aspect of the operant response. He brought up an example of a rat whereby he said that if a rat can press a lever with either of its limbs that is left paw, right paw or its tail they are all operating in the world in the same manner and are aiming at a common consequence (Gabbard, Litowitz & Williams, 2012).

The primary theorists were John B. Watson who came up with the methodological behaviorism, B.F. Skinner who later on brought up the radical behaviorism and Ivan Pavlov who joined hands with Watson in the investigation of the stimulus-response procedures. Skinner radical behaviorism turned out to be very successful experimentally and is now producing a new era of unique methods, but with the limitation of development since he dismissed the theory.

Applied behavior is a field that has been considered by many to have derived radical behaviorism. The filed has two sides to it that is the radical-based side and the human-based psychological behaviorism.

Humanistic theory is the methods that are put in place to study the structure of an individual while at the same time pinpointing the unique aspects of a person. The transpersonal theory is a field of psychology that is involved with the integrating of the spiritual and transcendent tenets that are concerned with the human experience at the advanced psychological level. Existential psychotherapy can be referred to as the process of a psycho-analyzing form of therapy. It consists of the belief that an individual can be assessed through a stream of experiences through which they have undergone in the past. Theorists such as William James, Carl Jung, Roberto Assagioli and Abraham Maslow were at the forefront of setting the stage for transpersonal studies. The origin of transpersonal psychology is mostly brought about by one Maslow and also responsible as the founder of humanistic psychology. Maslow gave the two aspects of psychology the 3rd and 4th forces that are there in psychology. Existential psychology has a human potential which is based on a commitment rendered to human dignity. A spiritual aspect of the transpersonal psychology can be considered as problematic this is for the sole reason of the people who extensively do not believe in the spiritual aspect of a human being.

The tenets differ in a couple of ways such that existential and transpersonal theorists have a distinction in the spiritual aspect. Transpersonalists have the idea that spiritual seeking is implicit to a higher level of consciousness. The thought and perspectives of the tenet are beyond the person thus being called a transpersonal. Transpersonal and existential psychologies are distinctive but closely relate in a couple of ways. The distinct differences are significant and essential (In House, In Kalisch, & In Maidman, 2018).

Enhancement of the understanding of human behavior, growth, and potential

Although autism has been found to be a non-curable disease behavioral theory has been employed and showed that the behaviors of such patients could be shaped even if not cured. It can be done through a smooth transition of rewarding and punishing. Psychoanalysis has assisted therapists in establishing a consumer-driven agenda since it has been modified to fit the needs of a person through their lifetime. When administering psychoanalysis and individual is encouraged to express themselves while at the same time exploring the critical aspects that one might be interested with, in that case, no one will have to impose something that is bad or unacceptable or inappropriate to that specific person. Humanistic views every individual as an active agent. The approach assists individual administering the therapy to be personally responsible for them. Any subjective experiences that an individual may have, been considered as equally important as any other when it comes to administering the therapy. The therapy is client-centered such that it is being practiced today in clinics and with councilors (Malawista, Adelman, & Anderson, 2011).

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