|Type of paper:||Term paper|
Nursing care models are the techniques practiced by the nurses in the provision of nursing care. Nursing practice models can be applied in the implementation of strategies of recourse-intensive with the aim of reducing cost in expenditure and practical use of more staff. There are several varieties of care models in nursing. There are different needs in healthcare organizations relating to nursing care models which should be implemented for change to be felt in the patients care. This paper aims at outlining some healthcare organizational theories that are identified to have a relationship with the care models in nursing as illustrated by Finkelman, (2016). The nursing care models include interdisciplinary care model, primary nursing care model, functional care model, and team nursing care model as described in this paper.
Interdisciplinary Care Model
In the practice setting of nursing, the multidisciplinary care model is most consistent nursing care model. I work closely with the charge nurse who is much involved alongside floor nurses whom we engage more in case management, the dietary department, and rehab.
Finkelman, (2016) made a statement that the interdisciplinary also referred to as the interprofessional care model practice, is based on the reports of Institute of Medicine (IOM) on the improvement of quality by identification of significance of all professions in health meet the competency in interdisciplinary or interprofessional. It also emphasizes the urge to work in teams to achieve corporation, integrate care, collaboration and communication in groups in ensuring that there are continuity and reliability in the care (Finkelman, 2016). Such teams are comprised of providers from distinct professions in health care and occupations meant to meet the patient needs to be required. This model has the capabilities to address requirements with the increasing complex patient care needs as well as to use effectively alongside applying an expertise and knowledge mixture to reach patient outcomes. The focus is on the center care of patients.
There is unity and togetherness of nursing stuff as exhibited in the meeting of patients' needs and goals. For instance, at the morning hours, there is meeting with the case management department to make a discussion on any probable needs the patients may require such as a wheelchair, walker or cane after being discharged. The other profound need is dynamics in a skilled nursing center, home health services or inpatient rehab. There is a close work relationship between the rehab department and the nurses as we persistently update each other in regards to the progress of the patient, the condition, and state as well as any other arising issue. This nursing care model's choice was influenced by the mode of communication and integration as encountered in the different disciplines every day. Sullivan (2015) argues that collaboration in interdisciplinary is founded on the premise that in case the health providers and patients communicate and value the unique opinion of each other, they can effectively meet the many factors influencing the individual's health, communities as well as families. No provider can achieve this by himself. I conquer with the above sentiments on no provider in healthcare can single handle the issues in regards to the patient's care.
Naylor (2011), states that experiments and examinations indicate that the outcomes of patients and care quality enhance if the providers in healthcare work together as equals, which also follows the providers to include their experiences and competence on how to take patience's care to the next level
The Primary Care Model
The research conducted by the National Institute of Health Clinic Center in a program of evidence-based practice to review the care models in nursing identified primary nursing care model as the most applied in most types of units in nursing like short-stay, inpatients, medical-surgical and procedure environment (Payne, 2015).
The foundations for a primary nursing care model are the rapport and building of the relationship. The benefits of this model are advantaged explicitly for the psychiatric inpatients' units. In Payne's article, there is a description of the case study on how the patients benefit from the primary care nursing. There were many readmissions by the patients, an incomplete assessment on the medical records was discovered, and there was an inconsistent nursing care plan which did not have one that was individualized and the interventions of therapeutic nursing documentation. There was an expectation that the nurses would have to establish good relationships as well as rapport in each hospitalization with their patients (Wan et al., 2011). There is the need for the patients to be guaranteed safety, empowerment, engagement and patient education by the nurses. This model thus provides that there should be nurse accessibility and trust as well as mutual respect resulting from the patient-nurse relationship.
Payne (2015) has a number of suggestions for the implementation of the primary nursing care model: the patient must be attached to the same primary nurse, the Indicators of National Database of Nursing Quality should be revised to evaluate opportunity to advance the outcome of patients and the environment of nursing practice, patient care plans to be individualized including the patient information that is relevant, develop the care model of primary nursing that facilitates the nurses' ability to establish a good ties with their patients
Functional Care Model
The functional nurse care model emphasizes the roles to be played and tasks to be handled entirely. The functional nursing care model is an approach of task-orienting laying emphasis on work to be done. The interdisciplinary care model enables the achievement of the functional care model by making utility of the professionalism in the nurses. This care model dates back in the period of World War II, at a period when the wounded victims considerably required nurses. The personnel was equipped with skills to receive vitals and provide medications to patients and care. The drawback to this model is that the concern for the patients is not adequately and efficiently achieved. The staffs involved in this model care usually feel stressed out and overwhelmed which does not favor the patient (Marquis & Huston, 2009).
Marquis & Huston (2009) contributed by stating that practical nursing may result in care that is fragmented and the probability of not looking into needs that are prior. Since many workers feel unchallenged and not simulated enough in their responsibilities practical nursing may be an expensive nursing care technique as a result of the urge for any coordinators. The workers commonly emphasize on the efforts having no interest in the general results.
Team Nursing Models
Clement (2015) makes a description of this nursing care model as inter-collaborative nursing where the professional, as well as non-professionals, work jointly to ensure complete care provision towards the patient. Payne
It, therefore, involves the charge nurse planning the patient care and spearheads the nurse's care plan. The model was assumed to give patients with a care quality that is high.
Some of the accrued benefits to this model were less stress and fatigue among the staff which yielded a reduction in the cases of call-offs, increase in staff morale which in turn increased the patient care as well as the satisfaction of their needs (Nursing Management, 2010). According to a statement by the Nursing Management (2010), one main drawback of the team nursing is the poor effort by the team and communication inability. Bringing the people together with the aim of work is not necessarily an indication that the nurses will work as a group jointly. There must be giving in of time in overseeing the team is of aid to every member acting as part of the group. Barriers in communication may yield to some challenges encountered in the delivery of patient care. There is an interruption of continuity care if the members of the team are re-shuffled continuously to other departments, resulting in the dissatisfaction of patients. Later, a lot of time is wasted as the new members who had just been reshuffled try to build a new team.
From the perspectives of the team, team nursing model facilitates increased supervision of the inexperienced and staff that is less skilled, enabling the nurses to be of aid to each other and relieve over breaks, if improved chances for the learners to get information as they were attached to the most experienced nurses, and educators' support was readily availed. Subsequently, the quality care and safety of patient were achieved when the teams had a productive performance (Cioffi & Ferguson, 2009). This care model appeared to be generally better for both staffs and patients in comparison to the functional model.
In the study of care models in nursing, I found out that every care model in nursing was designed for a particular purpose. Every care model influences the patient care, therefore; it has an impact that is direct to not only the healthcare organization but also to the patient. I would recommend the interdisciplinary care model as it facilitates multitasking of the nurses, ensuring they are suited in most fields.
Cioffi, j., & Ferguson, l. (2009). Team nursing in acute care settings: Nurses' experiences
Finkelman, A. W. (2016). Leadership and management for nurses: Core competencies for quality care. Boston: Pearson.
Marquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2009). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Naylor, M. (2011, July). Viewpoint: Interprofessional collaboration and the future of healthcare - American Nurse Today.
NURSING MANAGEMENT: TEAM VS. PRIMARY | Team Nursing vs. Primary Nursing. (2010). Retrieved from http://teamnursing.net/2010/10/15/nursing-management-team-vs-primary/
Payne, R. (2015). Evidence-based nursing. Establishing a primary nursing model of care. Nursing Management, 46(12), 11-13.
Sullivan, M., et al. (2015, March). Interprofessional Collaboration and Education: AJN The American Journal of Nursing.
Wan, H., et al. (2011). Continuous primary nursing care increases satisfaction with nursing care and reduces postpartum problems for hospitalized pregnant women. Contemporary Nurse, 37(2), 149-159. Doi:10.5172/conu.2011.37.2.149
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