|Type of paper:||Course work|
|Categories:||United States Federalism|
Federalism has evolved over time because the system created by the Constitution is dynamic. Explain why the Founders created a federal system and thus rejected unitary or confederal ones. Why did federal power expand in the 20th century? How is "new federalism" a reaction to the growth of the federal government?
The founding father preferred federalism to confederation because upon testing they realised that confederation resulted in a weak government that don't do what is needed of them. Also, federalism has an advantage over unitary system in that, in unitary government involves all the power given the central government causing mistrust by the citizens. Also, federalism provides an avenue to avoid tyranny by splitting the power between states and central government so that none is more powerful than the other.
During the civil war, under the threat of several challenges that threatened the existence of the union, hence Abraham Lincoln had to expand the reach of the government to deal with this challenges. It expanded the constitution not only to the role of protecting the citizens' right but also provide economic security and anti-trust laws such as Sherman Anti-trust Act and the Food and Drug Administration. The federal government, through the Federal Reserve controls the national economy.
The "new federalism" is a product of the previous federal government that was established in order to help cut taxes, trim subduing as well as reduced the influence Washington has on states significantly. Therefore by reducing the size and the influence of the federal government, it will help provide efficiency hence creating the "new federalism." Also, there has been mistrust of the federal government shown by the opinion showing that people have more confidence in the states and local government creating the "new federalism."
A professional press developed in the United States in the early 20th century. Identify the components of a professional press. How does a professional press play a role as watchdog? In your response, make sure to discuss one example of the press playing this role.
There certain aspects that make a professional press standout including a compelling headline, supporting quotes, informative lead paragraph, relevant timing, and clear call to action. A compelling is a vital components that determines the first impression of the press release. Therefore, making it short and compelling will ensure the success of the story. Since press release are supposed to be facts, using quotes to present the human element into the release. It will not only increase the validity of the release but also credibility of the release. Informative lead paragraph provides concise details to the reader through just a quick skim. Another crucial aspect of a professional press is the timing in which the press is released. It is vital to know the happenings at the space and time when the press is to be released. Lastly, it is professional to ensure that the press releases end in a call for action from the readers and never leave them to dig to find more information.
The professional press as a watchdog has been a concept that is one of the oldest beliefs of journalism. The press therefore, has been considered the fourth estate of the realms and also the watchdog of the society. As the watchdog, the press independently puts the activities of the government in check. However, the role of the press as a watchdog goes beyond its implication on the government only but also involve checking other social institutions, and powerful individuals. For example the media through television and printed media has played a major in exposing the activities of the government and other institution with regards to corruption. A good example of such check was the Panama papers in 2016 that showed the offshore accounts owned by powerful individuals in the world.
Public opinion is ostensibly important in a democracy. Discuss the delegate and trustee models of representation. Describe the role that public opinion plays in each of these models. What was the Founders' intention when they established a constitutional democracy?
The main principle of delegate representation is that the representative must be the organs of his/her constituents (Bowler, 2071 pg. 782). In this type of representation usually acts as the instruments for those who elected them. Therefore, if the government does not adhere to the proponents of delegate representation, then it should not be considered a representative democracy. Since the policymaker represents the constituent, the policies developed should have potential benefits and serve the interest of the constituents. Therefore, public opinion plays a major role in the decision made in the representation model.
The trustee representation is based on the sole principle that political leaders or elected officials should put the nation interests before the interest the constituents and the personal interests. Policies are therefore made based on the policy maker's ability to best judgement to select the best policy that promotes the public interest (Bowler, 2071 pg. 786). Because these elected official have the ability to make a reliable personal judgement in the matters of nation's interest, they have freer hand in representation. Unlike the delegate representation, trustee representation does not consider the public opinions and relies on personal judgements of the elected official.
The founding fathers believed that constitution is important in strengthening and defining the government further as discussed in the Articles of Confederation. They also wanted to avoid a tyrannical leadership hence put constitution in place to divide power and giving voice to the people. In addition, the constitution would provide the platform where economic policies and taxes were managed to help run the country. Finally, the founding fathers knew the perks of giving individual freedoms to each citizen.
Political ideology is one way to develop a political identity and frame one's political views. Define an ideology. Discuss the two dominant ideologies in the United States. Make sure to reference the difference between the traditional and modern forms of these two ideologies.
Ideology is usually defined as the set of opinions or belief that a group or an individual possesses. The two most dominant ideologies in the United States are liberalism and conservatism. Both the conservative's and conservatives believe that the opposing ideology is genuinely misguided and even threatening. According to Brandt et al., (2014 pg. 29), one of the major difference between liberalism and conservatism lies in the role the government plays in the lives of its citizens. Liberals believe that the government has the task of ensuring that the citizen receive equal social job opportunity and well-being for everyone through social programs. Conservatives believe that it is the task of individuals to ensure promotion of individuals and solving their own problems. Conservative often view taxation as an unjust social program that redistributes the wealth from the middle class and upper class to the poor. Also, in the economy liberal believe that government should regulate business while protecting the rights of the citizens. Conservatives, however, believe that economy should have free market and limited government intervention.
Voting is an important part of citizenship in a democracy. Describe voter turnout rates in the United States by examining the pattern illustrated in the graph on page 208 of our textbook. Identify the explanations for low voter turnout in the United States. Explain ONE of these in detail.
In the United States' recent history, participation in election only peaks during the presidential election, with the numbers trailing off during non-presidential and in primary races. One the possible reason is the age of the democracy of the United States. Studies have shown that the citizens form advance democratic nations tend to abstain from voting (Highton, 2017 pg. 152). Unlike the younger democracies such as Germany, united states have been voting for the past almost 250 years.
Brandt, M. J., Reyna, C., Chambers, J. R., Crawford, J. T., & Wetherell, G. (2014). The ideological-conflict hypothesis: Intolerance among both liberals and conservatives. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(1), 27-34.
Bowler, S. (2017). Trustees, delegates, and responsiveness in comparative perspective. Comparative Political Studies, 50(6), 766-793.
Highton, B. (2017). Voter identification laws and turnout in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science, 20, 149-167.
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