Bonobos are predominantly found at the Congo Basin in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Central Africa. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, are found in most forests of central Africa (Gruber, Clay & Zuberbuhler, 2010). Bonobos and common Chimpanzees used to live together as one species in the ancient times. However, around two million years ago, they diverged due to some special characters that exist in each of them. While Bonobos are female dominant with just a few males, the common Chimpanzees are male dominated. Although the two are close relatives, they evidently have different social dynamics. In this regard, the Bonobos generally have a peaceful coexistence that is devoid of violence and competition. However, the common chimps are very prone to violence. According to Gruber, Clay & Zuberbuhler (2010), there are varieties of theories that have been advanced to explain the differences between these two species of animals. However, some of the explanations that were given seemed to more sensible than others. In this case, it is argued that the dominant female Bonobos forge strong ties through the same-sex social coexistence that generally limits any aggression between the female Bonobos. On the other hand, it is argued that the male domination in the common Chimps brings about a lot of aggressiveness. Additionally, the common chips have the ability to use tools and go after the monkeys. Further, the common chimps sometimes hunt, kill and eat the infants of other groups of Chimpanzees. This is different considering how peaceful the Bonobos live.
Actually, according to Parish, de Waal, & Haig, D. (2010), 99% of the genomes in Bonobos and common Chimps are very similar to that of human beings. As such, the two are closer to human species than they are to the gorilla species. However, the Bonobos are even more similar to humans than their fellow Chimps because of the way they approach their social problems. Additionally, their psychology that is obtained from the way they relate with one another makes them special species of apes. Further, Bonobos have a shared neurophysiology that is similar to human beings, which makes them akin to the human species. Although that psychology has never been fully researched on, it is nevertheless, more than that of the common Chimpanzees and indeed, very close to that of humans. As such, the Bonobos are the best primate candidates for study as a modern version of how human ancestors might have lived in the past (Parish, de Waal, & Haig, 2010). This research paper will seek to discuss how the Bonobos differ from the common Chimpanzees and which social behavior makes them the best primate candidates to study about the origin of the human species. Additionally, this study will enumerate the various ways that he Bonobos is closer to human beings than it is not to fellow primates.
The common Chips and Bonobos are termed as the closest living relatives to man. Their behavior has been used to predict how the early hominids used to socialize and live. While the common Chimpanzees have been characterized by warfare, the Bonobos have been associated with peace and oneness. Additionally, the Bonobos have been associated with the proverb of make love not war because of their female power sharing and lack of aggression (Teixeira, 2010). These two species of apes have been reported to differ in aspects of dominance, sexuality, intelligence, social bonds, as well as intra and inter group conflicts. Common Chimpanzees of a male sex strive to remain on top of the rest because they can hunt meat and gather fruits for others. The sexual relations that occur between female Bonobos are of a non-conceptive nature since they are homosexual. These, plus other differences that are discussed herein will without doubt, bring out the true nature of the two and definitely make one understand why one is closer to human beings than the others are.
Bonobos provide a very close connection between the human and animal world. On one hand, they truly suggest how our ancestors were like in more than 6 million years ago. Additionally, they help people study about the connections that they have with human beings and how those traits might have arisen. In fact, Bonobos have very big differences in social behavior and traits from their fellow brothers, the common Chimpanzees. For instance, while Bonobos are dominantly black faced, slender and human looking, their brothers, the common chimps, have dark lips with their skin color dependent on their age. Additional, Bonobos share almost 99% of their genetic make-up with human beings. Stories have been told about people who lived with Bonobos in the forests in the Zaire River. It is stated that they coexisted very well with the Bonobos than they did with the common Chimpanzees. Additionally, it is argued that they showed those people the foods that they were supposed to eat because some were poisonous. Further, it is contented that the Bonobos themselves at one time contemplated becoming human beings.
The other behavioral trait that brings a Bonobos closer to humans is its ability to walk on its two feet. While there are other types of Chimpanzees who use their arms and legs, the Bonobos have stood out and walked on two legs confirming how close they are to the human species. Through the many stories that have been told about the practice of the Bonobos, it is contented that they have even a language that is similar to that of humans. In fact, their sharp voice is closer to that of human than it is to that of their cousins, the gorillas. The way, their communication with each other is special. In any case, they can understand each other. This means that, they have a certain way of understanding among themselves that is verbal. Unlike other primates such as the common Chimpanzees, Bonobos use a language to communicate; however, the language cannot be deciphered, as it is only meaningful to their fellow Bonobos. The social organization of the Bonobos is another trait that makes it the best-suited candidate to study about the anthropology of human behavior. The non-reproductive mating that Bonobos have, is a great concern for human beings. This is because, the homosexuality that mostly happens between the female Bonobos is thought out as a method of family planning akin to that of human beings. This behavior makes the Bonobos to be referred as the next intelligent primates after human beings.
Unlike the male dominated culture of their cousins the common Chimpanzees, the Bonobo society is peaceful and almost entirely matriarchal. In this case, the female Bonobos are the ones, which have more authority and power in their societies. Additionally, the Bonobos live in large groups akin to that of the traditional human communities, which existed in the past. In most cases, the male and female Bonobos have separate but equal roles in the ecosystem. Although the females call the shorts, the males are still not ignored. However, in the common Chimpanzees ecosystem, the males are the dominant oppressing the females at will and having very high sexual dimorphism. The main point here, which matches with the nature of human beings, is the coexistence. In this regard, the peace and tranquility that is present in the Bonobos society is similar to that human beings enjoy in their societies. This further, proves that the Bonobos are the closest primates to humans. As such, any researcher willing to study the anthropology of human beings will indeed find it appropriate to use the Bonobos as the case study. That way he/she will be able to understand better, the relationship between the two.
The diet that Bonobos have is also another area that brings them closer to the human species. In this regard, the primates eat a variety of foods raging form fruits, seeds, plant roots, honey eggs, mammals, leaves, flowers, et cetera. This is different from their brothers the common Chimpanzees who mostly dine on mammals. In this regard, the common chips hunt small antelopes and flying squirrels. The fact that Bonobos eat a form of a balanced diet raging from vitamins, to proteins to carbohydrates shows how intelligent they are. Additionally, it reaffirms that they have a very close genetic relationships with human beings. This is because humans know what kind of foods to eat because of their nutritional value. Indeed, most of the foods that are consumed by Bonobos are the same that human beings consume. However, there are several foods consumed by common Chimpanzees that human beings cannot eat because, they are either poisonous or undesirable.
Teixeira (2015),states that the faces of Bonobos as well as their hands and legs brings out the next point on why they are more closer to humans than chimpanzees. Bonobos have a forehead that is akin to that of humans. Additionally, they can hold things on their hands just as human beings do. Surprisingly, Bonobos are able to dig the roots of trees and plants such as cassavas. Additionally, they peel off the cassava removing the outside cover (dermis) that is poisonous (Gruber, Clay, & Zuberbuhler, 2010). Apart from that, Bonobos eat together as one family. In this case, they share the foods that they have hunted and gathered with the small ones who cannot go hunting and gathering. This presents their set up as that of a normal family where the young and vulnerable are taken care of. Clearly, the intelligence that is displayed in those actions cannot be compared to that of the gorilla. Indeed, it can only be gauged with that of human beings in their current state of civilization.
Spending sometime in the forest will make one discover something very special about Bonobos. This is their talent in singing. In fact, one might search for long hours where that fine tune of song is coming from. However, looking form above, one will realize the Bonobos swinging on tree branches. Additionally, the primates are able to whistle, which is behavior that is attributed to human characters. Those hearing the songs for the first times are always eager to hear them repeatedly. Apart from that, Bonobos call out at night if any danger is eminent. As such, they care for each other. Additionally, they gather in trees during the night to make their night nests. This alludes to the fact of their intelligent and ability to differentiate between day and night. Additionally, it confirms that just like human beings they are aware that a night they should sleep and work during the day. However, most of common Chimpanzees will be found hunting at night. In this regard, they hop from one tree branch to the other looking for something to eat. This behavior is very different to that of humans but similar to that of gorillas (Teixeira et al., 2015). However, that of Bonobos who sleep at night on tree branches and call out on each other makes them resemble human characters.
In the view of Gruber, Clay, & Zuberbuhler (2010), Bonobos use tools in their quest to hunt and gather. Unlike the common Chimpanzees that have littler knowledge about the use of tools, Bonobos have expertise in using tools. Just like human beings, they use tree branches to dig into the roots of plants. This is usually done when gathering food for their various families. Additionally, the Bonobos share the foods that they gather amongst themselves. Those acts of communism, compassion, empathy, and care for one another cannot be found in any other groupings except in human world. Further, there is a sense of respect that is present in Bonobos that is not present in common Chimpanzees. This is because, in the Bonobos species, females respect the males while the males respect the female Bonobos. This kind of respect for one another is trait that is so close to human beings that it is to the gorillas.
In conclusion, Bonobos and common chimps have a lot of...
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