I have come across many journals, articles, reviews and brochures and their scope is vast.

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These authors have published works that is limited to singular topics without any comparisons and centrally aiming at exhausting a particular event. (See The End of Empire? for example.)

However, when all the authors discuss in details their choice of interest in their journals, articles, reviews and brochures, I fail to see them go deeper into clarification of the similarities and differences of their topics in relation to the happenings of the events. My goal in this paper is to show how the strategies used for decolonization and re-indigenization compare to actual indigenous lifeways and practices in the countryside.

To achieve this goal, I have organized my paper into sub sections under main sections. In the first section, I provide an account of two superior events in history of decolonization and re-indigenization and the effects they had. In the same section, I go into details of the actual indigenous lifeways and practices in the countryside.

My paper ends in a third section that

Offers the outlinings of the major similarities and differences of the two events

Concluding with a fourth section that highlights the importance of further research into this particular agenda. It is at this point I include an appendix after the works cited.

Before I can begin the examination of the three handbooks,

However, I need to provide an historical context in which the books were written, and it is

To this that I want to venture.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Preserving the Cree language has been praised as de-colonizing and re-Indigenizing perceptions

OfLanguage within Cree culture. (Wild Berries/Pakwa), similarly, in historical times of the great

Colonial Times, these are in the context of referring to a way of rejuvenating the spirit of getting

Freedomback into the minds of the colonized and re-introducing the ancient ways in culture,

Governments, social Aspects and beliefs of a people before the events of colonialism. In the

Countryside, where culture and such ways characterizing originality of a people are still held

Closely too. There are conservancies in some countryside, for a particular group of people that

Date back to the earliest of times in history. It is from these concepts that the authors have

Generated their materials. In both events, lives were affected enormously and huge changes were

Experienced both socially and economically.

Adaptations and concepts of re-Indigenizing in history.

Re-indigenizing for ancient people took many forms. Guided by any symbols of theirpast,

Known or unknown.

According to legend, Cumbe ruled the Colombian community of Cumbal during the Spanish

Invasion. Although there is no documentation of Chief Cumbe's existence, today's Cumbales

Point to him as their ancestral link to Pasto ancestors. (Joanne Rappaport)

He is used symbolically by a people who need something to believe in. According to the legend

He had ruled during the invasion by the Spanish. In current day, the Pasto people use him as

Their true link to the Pasto ancestry.

Apart from being used in different setups from military politics to community organizations and

Music, they use him to try and reinvigorate their indigenous heritage and also reclaim the lands

The heritage justifies. Historical consciousness is based on a unique combination of

Ethnographical analysis (Cumbe reborn) helps in understanding the ethnic militancy of Americas

And on the wider methodological discussion of non-western historical consciousness under

Colonial domination. It is an insight of events unfolding as people try to recapture their

Originality in the effort of decolonization.

In his book, Canessa explains how the people in the small village he studies are identified by

Their will for re-indigenization. I feel that this is used by the different parties involved to

Intimidate and go against their opposites. This I highlight as an effect of re-indigenization. It is

Politicized by the people of this village, in a socio-political manner, and they go further to make

It raced, classed and gendered.

He takes us through the semantics, phenomenologies and politics of re-indigenization

With only very few simple proofs. In contemporary Bolivia Canessa takes us through with him

To search for vivid explanations of who really is practicing re-indigenization and

Re-colonization. As much as I follow him through the search, I realize he is almost there when he

Touchesthe Main elements (food, language, dress,religious practices, notions of historical

Injustices, etc.)But with the diversions that rapidly come in, he loses track of these and move to

Other aspects.

He goes on along the line of analytics to look into the surroundings of Wila Kjarka and the

Extensive fields of religion, history and culture in terms of ritual practices, and this is the part we

Get to see a revelation, but inn a way of a small insight on how the actual indigenous lifeways

And practices in the countryside matter in influencing de-colonization and re-indigenization.

It is clear that a marked out region, theoretically speaking will largely be affected by the

Surroundings which are typically the countryside practices. In way of ritual practices, religion,

And socio-political factors.

Indigenous lifeways and practices in the countryside

Considering the ways of countryside life, I look into the traditional French Canadian family.

French Canada began in 1584, establishing a colony which was NewFrance. It has a rich culture and marked by slow growth over a century after startup. Build along River St, Lawrence, it consisted of many rural farms along it.

Working in the nearby woodlands was also essential an activity. Voyagers too came up during summers as they went on to do business in Montreal. Settlements began downriver with the settlers working their way into the bush to clear more living and farming space.

Marriage being more of a family matter rather than a spouse choosing thing, this was a major marking of a rite of passage. Courtships in such scenarios lasted a few months often in the context of the parties or other activities allowing social interactions.

CONCLUSION

Looking at such a setup, of continuously repetitive activities, we could come into agreement that

Re-colonization and re-indigenization are somehow similar to the lifeways of the countryside that were passed on and are still passed on over and over from one generation to the other.

However, I would like to take you a back to questions that would come up in this context in the future, and open further discussion into this topic, using various sources for justification, and

Which I will now turn on to.

Considering the way lifeways have lost some of their key aspects along their lifecycle

As they are passed down generations, I think it would be reasonable to say that they are not similar to re-colonization and re-indigenization, since in the latter the original ways are really referred to and insisted on.

In re-colonization and re-indigenization,legends are used for reference while it is not a necessity in countryside lifeways,since the moving out generation is copied.

Works Cited

ANDERS BURMAN (2014). Journal of Latin American Studies, 46, pp 198-199

Doi 10.1017/S0022216X13001673

Andrew Canessa, Intimate Indigeneities: Race, Sex and History in the Small Spaces

Of Andean Life (Durham, NC, and London: Duke University Press)

sheldon

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