Anxiety Disorders among Adolescents, Free Paper Sample

Published: 2022-02-21 19:40:18
Anxiety Disorders among Adolescents, Free Paper Sample
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories: Mental health Anxiety disorder
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1590 words
14 min read
143 views

Anxiety conditions among teenagers are often characterized by dread, fear, or worries that hugely affect the ability to function normally. Anxiety disorders occur due to expectations that something harmful or dangerous might happen. This paper provides a discussion of how anxiety disorders affect adolescents and the appropriate treatment and therapeutic strategies.

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Article 1

Author: Josephine EliaTopic: Overview of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Publisher: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Kenilworth, NJ, USA

Anxiety conditions involve the dysfunction of the hippocampus and the limbic systems of the body that control emotions and reactions to fear. Parental anxiety is one of the major contributors to anxiety among children (Elia, 2019). Those adolescents who are genetically predisposed to the disorder experience difficulties in managing their fears and worries. In at least 30% of the anxiety-related cases, joint treatment of parents and adolescents anxiety is of many benefits.

One of the dominant effects of anxiety disorder among adolescents is school phobia. Most of the adolescents develop an attitude of school refusal, a behavior strongly connected to social anxiety, separation anxiety, or panic disorder. Children develop some fear of having to separate from parents, and other times they fear that their peers may laugh at them at school (Elia, 2019). Some adolescents express their discomforts in the form of somatic complaints such as having nausea, stomachache, and even headaches. Such upsets are often attributed to anxiety.

Anxiety disorder can be diagnosed clinically by conducting a comprehensive psychosocial history. Before considering an anxiety disorder, clinicians conduct a considerable test for physical disorders among adolescents. One of the best approaches to anxiety treatment is exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. Under this approach, therapists help children manage anxiety-provoking conditions desensitizing them to be less anxious (Elia, 2019). Another effective strategy is behavioral therapy, whereby an experienced therapist individualizes child development principles.

Article 2

Authors: Ronald M Rapee, Professor

Title: Anxiety Disorders In Children and Adolescents: Nature, Development, Treatment, and Prevention

Publisher: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions

Approximately 80% to 90% of adolescents have more than one mental disorder. Adolescents experiencing anxiety disorders are also more prevalent in other disorders, with 75% of these children having more than one anxiety conditions (Rapee, 2018). An additional 30% to 40% of these children also experience mood disorders and behavioral disorders. An estimated 5% of adolescents experience anxiety disorders at a given period. Additionally, females have a high prevalence (2 times) of experiencing anxiety disorders than males.

Adolescents feel neglected or ignored by their peers as well as their family members. These children perform poorly in social environments and sometimes behave in a socially awkward way. An example is where they communicate very quietly, speak very little, or communicate uncertainly and hesitantly. Additionally, these children may develop fear in expressing themselves to other people, whereby they even avoid eye contact.

Skill-based programs offer treatment services by teaching the affected children and parents on life skills that help in anxiety management. Most of the skill-based programs involve complete packages or method combinations (Rapee, 2018). Some of these programs include Psychoeducation, Cognitive restructuring, Contingency management, and social skills training. Low-intensity intercession is another treatment strategy delivered through the internet or printed material from therapists.

Article 3

Authors: Carl Tassin, Christine Reynaert, Denis Jacques & Nicolas Zdanowicz

Title: Anxiety Disorders in Adolescence

Publisher: Psychiatria Danubina,

According to this study, adolescents are prone to experiencing anxiety conditions more than any other mental disorder. Globally, anxiety prevalence among adolescents stands between 15% to above 30% compared to adults' prevalence, which is between 10% and 20% (Tassin et al., 2014). Few of the common anxiety conditions among adolescents are generalized disorders and social phobia disorders. Social phobia is highly predominant, impairing, and persistent psychiatric disorder among teenagers. Additionally, the first cognitive, behavioral, and physical manifestations of social anxiety affect adolescents.

Anxiety disorders among adolescents present an increased risk of substance abuse, educational underachievement, as well as depression. Anxiety disorders affect the working memory of young learners, a situation that makes it hard for them to recall new and previously learned information. Such students have little or no engagement with their teachers and peers in the classroom. Moreover, they show a lack of interest in pursuing future dreams.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is a treatment approach recommendable when anxiety symptom turn severe and when psychotherapy is not producing positive results. This type of treatment involves using medications that last between 10 to 15 weeks (Tassin et al., 2014). Most of the children using this kind of treatment are highly responsive and regain their normal conditions on completion of the dose.

Article 4

Author: Avital E. Falk and John T. Walkup

Title: Anxiety Disorders in Children, Adolescents, and Emerging Adulthood

Publisher: Haymarket Media, Inc.

Anxiety conditions are the most predominant psychiatric disorders among teenagers. The prevalence rate among adolescents is between 15% and 20% (Falk & Walkup, 2015). Most of the anxiety-related disorders begin occurring at the age of 6 years. Adolescents experiencing anxiety disorders are characterized by hyper-vigilant behavior and are continuously scanning their bodies, internal and external environments for anxiety triggers. Lack of early treatment for anxiety conditions may lead to major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic diseases.

Anxiety manifests both in cognitive and physical symptoms. Some of the common physical symptoms among adolescents include chest pains, abdominal pains, headaches, and short breath. Some of the cognitive symptoms among adolescents involve worrying about the past or future, fear sleeping alone at night, and separation from parents (Falk & Walkup, 2015). Adolescents also express high levels of persistent worry and failure to respond to any reassurances.

Treatment of anxiety disorders involve an individual, family members as well as learning institutions. Treatment at this level aims at reducing anxiety symptoms by encouraging teenagers to face anxiety fears, improve acceptance for disturbing circumstances, and gain skills to adapt and cope with the situations. In managing anxiety disorders, affected individuals need to work jointly with peers and other groups to develop communication skills. (Falk & Walkup, 2015). By working with groups, teenagers need to learn how to engage and face their fears. Families also play a crucial role in encouraging independence and disengagement from unnecessary behaviours.

Article 5

Author: World Health Organization

Title: Adolescent mental health

Publisher: World Health Organization

According to this study, anxiety is the number eight among the leading cause of disability and illness among adolescents. At least one teenager out of six suffers from anxiety disorders, a value estimated to be around 16% of the total mental diseases. Some of the factors contributing to anxiety include pressure to match with peers, desire for independence, and need to explore sexual identity. Some youths are targets of anxiety disorders due to exclusion, stigma, living conditions as well as limited access to care services.

Most of the teenagers experiencing anxiety conditions are prone to emotional disorders, which include high levels of irritability, anger, or frustrations. These individuals are likely to experience unexpected emotional outbursts and mood changes (World Health Organization, 2018). Avoidance or withdrawal of peers, family, or education centers can lead to loneliness and isolation of the adolescents, a factor which may even contribute to suicide. Anxiety may bring about eating disorders, especially to the females, leading to loss of body weight and fear of gaining weight.

Face-to-face guidance and counseling sessions with the youths is an appropriate approach to help reduce anxiety disorders. Affected individuals visit therapists, whereby they are provided with the right guidance, including reading materials to help overcome the disorder (World Health Organization, 2018). Another approach to delivering anxiety treatment is the administration of psychotropic medication to individuals with mild anxiety.

Article 6

Authors: Anna M. Wehry, Katja Beesdo-Baum, Meghann M. Hennelly, Sucheta D. Connolly, and Jeffrey R. Strawn

Title: Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Publisher: National Center for Biotechnology Information

Globally, anxiety disorders affect between 15 to 20% of teenagers. Anxiety disorders are the earliest types of psychopathology. According to this study, most of the anxious children are not at risk of substance abuse as most of them do not take risks, and they also obey rules.

When in mild levels, anxiety disorders are more likely to raise the risk of committing suicide among the youths. These disorders are also associated with increased mortality and morbidity rates among teenagers due to high levels of depression (Wehry et al., 2015). On the higher end, teenagers suffering from anxiety are prone to engage in substance abuse as they attempt to fight the disorder.

According to this study, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) approach is a leading treatment for the disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) provides techniques to manage somatic reactions, which include diaphragmatic breathing and relaxation training Wehry et al., 2015). The strategy focuses on cognitive restructuring by finding and challenging thoughts that provoke anxiety. It allows victims to gain the courage to face fearful situations.

References

Falk, A. E., & Walkup, J. T. (2015, August 19). Anxiety Disorders in Children, Adolescents, and Emerging Adulthood. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/home/topics/anxiety/anxiety-disorders-in-children-adolescents-and-emerging-adulthood/

Rapee, R. (2018). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: nature, development, treatment, and prevention.

Tassin, C., Reynaert, C., Jacques, D., & Zdanowicz, N. (2014). Anxiety disorders in adolescence. Psychiatria Danubina, 26(1), 27-30.

Elia, J. (2019). Overview of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents/overview-of-anxiety-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents

Wehry, A. M., Beesdo-Baum, K., Hennelly, M. M., Connolly, S. D., & Strawn, J. R. (2015). Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Current psychiatry reports, 17(7), 52.

World Health Organization. (2018, September 18). Adolescent mental health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-mental-health

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