What cause air pollution
Air pollution control is an integral part of environmental management as it is directly related to climate change. The effects of air pollution are often far-reaching and are spatially harder to control once the damage is done.
In the United States, state governments are required to adopt air quality control measures through legislative process. These measures are submitted to EPA for approval and then included in each state's implementation plans. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), whose mandate is to enforce environmental health laws and regulations, has put in place various measures for air quality control. This measures include setting standards for ambient air quality, determine hazardous emissions and conducting extensive research on appropriate pollution prevention techniques. The provisions are provided in the Clean Air Act to curb both state and interstate air pollution issues. EPA provides technical guidance for implementation of environmental plans in each state. More specifically, some of this measures include the following:
EPA has placed standards for emissions from mobile and stationary sources of air pollution like manufacturing industries to ensure use of cleaner fuels and technologies. Additionally, there are economic incentives in banking and trading for using cleaner technologies. This is also combined with the command-and-control regulations that have for long been used by EPA.
Controlling air pollution at the sources
This is a preventive strategy instituted to reduce or eliminate air pollution at its source. This is done first by identifying sources of air pollution and subsequently ensuring use of approved fuels and raw materials, using non-polluting/less polluting industrial processes and improving process efficiency.
The Clean Air Technology Center
This is a vital resource for the prevention and control of air pollution. This center provides a platform for research and use of effective processes. It features wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, condensers, absorbers, mechanical collectors among other clean production mechanisms. It also serves as a resource for research of renewable and cost effective energy resources.
EPA encourages industries to reduce emissions and account for these emissions. The Agency also encourages voluntary initiatives to achieve emission reduction through trading programs like the Emission Reduction Credits(ERC). Business operators receive credit for reducing emissions below the set limits.
The government also has various mechanisms for educating the public and private sectors on efficient use of clean and renewable energy sources at both local and national levels. EPA provides guidelines for controlling indoor air pollution in households and workplaces. Also, during formulation of air control policies the public is widely consulted to ensure appropriate measures are formulated. Public participation helps to streamline implementation of this laws. Likewise, the same forums are used to communicate, guide and interpret already instituted laws and policies.
Pollution Control Subsidies
This comes in form of financial support from the government for environmentally friendly activities. A polluter is rewarded for reducing emissions either through receiving grants, favorable tax reliefs or lower interest rates. EPA' voluntary programs encourage companies to implement environmental best practices which gives them a good public image and encourages more business to follow suit.
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